Programme Schedule

XX School of Fermentation Technology

Wednesday, 18.05.2022


SzTF 2022


Aleksander Poreda
Krakow School of Brewing, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Poland



L1: Barrel Ageing of Beer

Gert De Rouck
KU Leuven, Belgium

Barrel ageing of beer is very popular in the craft beer scene. However, a lot of parameters will define the final flavour of the barrel aged beer. First there is the wood type itself. Second there is growth location and place of the wood staves from the stem. Finally there is the seasoning and the toasting of the wood. Apart from the wood, there is also the importance of the beer (alcohol, bitterness) which will impact the flavour extraction and microbial community during barrel ageing. At last, barrels can be re-used after cleaning. This cleaning techniques again have an impact on the barrel ageing process.

In this study, new oak wood barrels are used. The wood itself was pre-screened with NIR techniques to classify the wood into sweet, structure, spicy and equilibrium. Pilot scale barrel ageing (50L) was used to study the impact of different wood types. Industrial barrel ageing (220L barrels) in 5 breweries with 3 different barrel types resulted in a large dataset on flavour potential and microbial communities. At last, cleaning of wood and its re-use gained insight in the microbial growth and flavour profile of these barrel aged beers.
The classification of wood via the NIR technique clearly resulted in a different flavour potential of the barrel aged beers. Bitterness of the beer influenced the presence of bacteria. Toasting of wood has an impact on the flavour of the beer, but also on the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The use of sulphur as an extra disinfection of the barrels is useful, but full sterilization of a barrel is impossible.
The presentation will feature a lot of practical data regarding beer barrel ageing.


SzTF 2022



New Products & New Trends

L3: Brew your own Hard Seltzer – nutrients and best practices

Celina Dugulin
Murphy & Son Ltd., Nottingham, UK

Consumer tastes, preferences, and trends are changing – constantly! The hard seltzer boom in the United States has shown that there is a high demand for lighter and low or no-calorie beverages, rather than full-bodied, and calorically rich beers. Expanding into new product offerings gives access to new markets and customers, helps to increase brand awareness, and provides a lucrative opportunity to both craft and large-scale brewers. Furthermore, the equipment required for the production (fermentation), mixing and blending are already present in most brewhouses.

Hard seltzers or RTD-cocktails are either ‘spiked’ with distilled spirit or (for tax purposes) produced from a sugar-based fermentation that produces a neutral alcohol base. The ingredients in a typical fermented neutral alcohol base are simple – water, sugar and of course yeast and yeast nutrients. However, the process is sometimes plagued with long or stalled fermentations, as well as significant off-flavours in the final product. This is primarily due to i) the absence of succinct nutrients in the sugar solution required for a healthy fermentation, ii) wrong choice of yeast strain, or iii) insufficient aeration for high gravity ferments.

Our team has been committed to continuously highlighting the lucrative opportunity that neutral alcohol bases offer for both craft and large-scale brewers. Similarly, we reviewed and summarized best-practice techniques to successfully create Hard Seltzers fermented to sales strength (4-7%), as well as high-strength bases (12-18% ABV) that can be blended to your tastes and preference – no limit to a brewer’s creativity!


Quality & Stability of Beer

L4: Analysis of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beers with Anton Paar devices

Lukasz Burchacki Anton Paar


SzTF 2022


New Products & New Trends

L5: Alcohol free and low alcohol beer production

Andrew Paterson

Andrew Paterson will present an in depth discussion of the various options for creating low and no alcohol beer. Focussing on the low alcohol approach we will explore the concepts of high temperature mashing as well as fermentation using non-traditional yeast species. Additionally we will discuss wort creation and the variables that can be altered in the pursuit of great tasting, low and no alcohol beer.  


New Products & New Trends

L6: Innovations & Challenges in Beermix-Production

Stefan Klingohr Akras Flavours

Beermix-drinks remain very popular throughout the European market.

Beer-related beverages, besides the classical 50:50 blend, could be an interesting market segment for breweries. Innovative beer-products like flavoured malt-based beverages, fruit & hop drinks or wort-based drinks can help to unlock new and dynamic markets. The ingredients for these beverages have to be chosen carefully and with experience, because a number of issues have to be considered. Beer is a complex media and in combination with non-alcoholic beverages multiple reactions may take place. Furthermore, all kinds of handling, e.g. store, filling, transportation as well as the selected packaging itself do influence the quality of the finished products. 

In this talk we discuss some of these possible reactions and how the stability of the finished products can be improved.


SzTF 2022

L7: Use of specialty malt extracts in modern brewing and product development

Ruslan Hofmann

With the help of refined malt extracts beers can be easily differentiated in terms of colour or mouthfeel. Addition can be managed from brewhouse to filtration which improves the production efficiency in breweries of all sizes.

All products are made from 100 % barley malt and can substitute crystal, roasted malt or caramel colorants. Colours can be adjusted to create beers with premium golden, red or dark to black final beer colours.

The new concept of the product ZEBRA is applicable for the production of low and zero alcohol beers or malt based soft drinks.

For production of beers produced the high gravity brewing methods the malt extracts can serve as enhancers of mouthfeel which is reduced due to the addition of deaerated water at the filtration process.


New Products & New Trends

L8: Kombucha - an alternative to alcohol free beers

Edyta Kordialik-Bogacka
Politechnika Łódzka


SzTF 2022


Quality & Stability of Beer

L9: Brewers Clarex® for sustainable beer stabilization

Theo Wijsman


Quality & Stability of Beer

L10: Sulphite content of beer: impact of raw material & fermentation parameters

Sophie Schwebel
IFBM (French Institute of Brewing and Malting), France

Sulfur dioxide is a natural antioxydant. It can be added by the brewer or naturally produced by the yeast. It is identified as an allergen and thus must be labelled if its content is higher than 10 mg/l. In lager beer, the concentration in the final beer must be lower than 20 mg/l. However, beer SO2 content can vary from one brew to another without any clear explanation for the brewer. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the impact of raw material and process (fermentation) parameters on SO2 content in lager beer. In a first part, the transfer from malt to wort was investigated. In a second part, the influence of fermentation parameters were assessed. Data collection was performed thanks a design of experiment built in order to study the influence of wort gravity, oxygenation and pitching rate with interactions. Several yeast generations were also tested. The influence of the parameters on fermentation duration and on sulphite production are discussed.



L11: Oxidative stability of dry-hopped beers

Olga Hrabia
Krakow School of Brewing, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Poland

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of dry-hopping on the oxidative stability and antioxidative potential of beer. A commercial beer was dry-hopped at 5 and 20 °C with six hop varieties (Polish and American), each variety separately, as a variant of experiment. The rate of radical formation and lag time depended on the variety of hops used. An increase in the lag time and a decrease in the rate of radical formation were observed when dry-hopping at 20 °C for all hop varieties (at 5 °C only in some of them). The lag time showed a strong correlation with total polyphenols in beer. The rate of radical formation correlated with iron content in the beer. Evaluation of free radical formation using ESR is a useful tool to predict the oxidative changes in the beer during storage.



L12: Yeast Protein Extract (YPE), a natural innovative and sustainable solution for white beer haze stability

Olivier Caille
Fermentis – S.I.Lesaffre, France

Yeast derivatives are yeast cell fractions obtained by inactivation or autolysis of living yeast cells subsequently fractionated and purified. Multiple applications of yeast derivatives have been explored in food and wine. In white beer, sensitive proteins and polyphenols form complexes responsible of haze. Proteins from YPE may contribute to stable haze as a clean label solution.

Fermentis is dedicated to the development of fermentation and characterization solutions for beverages. It has developed a yeast derivative rich in proteins (Yeast Protein Extract) so called Spring’Blanche, able to provide a stable homogeneous haze in white beers.

The haze has been investigated systematically for a range of Spring’Blanche dosing rates, in various types of beer matrixes chosen based on specificities of the brewing process (stabilization protocol, filtration/centrifugation system, bottle conditioning) and the beer composition (cereals, proteins and polyphenols).

Spring’Blanche increases the haze in White beers and creates one in Blond beers. Surprisingly, a stable haze could be created in PVPP-treated beers. Alcohol, total polyphenols and yeast content for refermentation show no negative influence on haze. Beers made with a specific enzyme treatment exhibit unstable haze over time.

Spring’Blanche implementation impact has been studied, for one year at 4 and 20°C, at the beginning of the fermentation, the maturation or the bottling on a customized white beer. Haze was also characterized when beer was either force carbonated or refermented with SafAle F-2. Results suggest strongly to implement Spring’Blanche at the maturation step in all conditions tested.

The work presented reveals that 100% yeast derived protein extract as a clean label product is an innovative and sustainable solution for maintaining or creating stable haze in beer.



L13: Microbiological Analysis of Beer - PCR Method

Marcin Niezgoda


SzTF 2022


Open bar at the conference hall – beer provided by breweries supporting SzTF

19:30 🍽DINNER at Karczma na Kocierzu followed by a 🍻GATHERING at K2 club – Sponsored by ECOLAB

SzTF 2022

Thursday, 19.05.2022

07:00 BREAKFAST 🍳☕️

SzTF 2022



L14: Recipe Optimisation and Process Control at the Żywiec BRewery with the inline MIR analyser SIBA

Krzysztof Kucharczyk, Francesco Sergi-Lindell
Grupa Żywiec S.A., Specshell ApS

Specshell In-line Brewing Analyzer SIBA is a patented, fully automated in-line tool that give the brewer a live insight into the mashing and cereal cooking process without the need for manual sample processing. SIBA is connected to the mash tun in a closed sample loop and operates with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The system is designed to perform optimally under industrial brewery conditions, where the core technology ensures robust stand-alone real-time process monitoring.
After implementing SIBA in  the Żywiec Brewery, the impact of mashing profile modification on the quality and parameters of wort and beer was determined. The analyzed parameters were wort extract value, course of filtration of mash and extract yield. The final temperature of maize grits gelatinization in a maize cooker and temperature of enzymatic rests were changed. The conducted trials affected on improved the better liquefaction of starch, reduced the occupation time of lauter tun by 5 minutes and reduced the turbidity of the wort by 5%. Introduced modifications in the mashing profile resulted in a reduction of extract losses by 0.20%. Between the samples, no statistically significant differences in the physicochemical and chromatographic results of the beer were noticed. Mashing profile changes have no effect on the sensory profile of the finished product.


Microbiology & Fermentation

L15: Sour beer – conditions of propagation and mixed LAB/yeast fermentation

Aneta Ciosek
Kraków School of Brewing, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Poland

Despite the hard times, the production and consumption of beer in Poland is not decreasing. According to the latest reports, consumers are open to new beers. In 2021, over 2 000 new beers appeared, of which sour beers (Sour Ale) accounted for as much as 13.3%, thus ahead of many popular styles, i.e. lager (4.2% of the production of new beers), pils (3.8%), wheat (3.5%) %) or porter (3.4%). The production of sour beers in Poland, which increases every year, is due to the increasing amount of scientific data on the method of their production.

The main goal of my work was to develop a technology for producing sour beers, to understand the mechanisms occurring during production, to obtain a standardized product with reproducible taste qualities. The conducted research was also intended to supplement the knowledge on the propagation of lactic acid bacteria on malt wort, their use in mixed fermentation, as well as their role in shaping the bouquet of aromatic beer.


Microbiology & Fermentation

L16: Yeast inoculum size effect in brewery and laboratory

Magdalena Biesiadecka
University of Rzeszów, Poland

Yeast metabolic strategies plays a crucial role in ecological adaptations as well as some of strategies are very useful in breweries. Fermentation in brewery is one of the most important process when yeast convert sugars into ethanol, moreover proper fermentation provide good well taste beer with adequide aroma. However the proper fermentation process might be disrupted by overpitching or underpitching of yeast initial culture. This kind of situation might appear as technical problem, nevertheless it is possible that some yeast are dead or not viable during the repitching from batch to batch. The main goal of project was to evaluate if dead yeast cells has an impact on fermentation progress in small laboratory conditions. Moreover there was evaluate how yeast metabolism strategy change when viable yeast growth, propagate and ferment in environment which is full of dead yeast cells. Results of experiments appeared that dead yeast cells has an impact on viable ones, and change their metabolism significantly. The results might helps brewers understand how yeast react on some condition changes.


Microbiology & Fermentation


Silvia Mrvik


Microbiology & Fermentation


Jan Kwiatoń, Edyta Omyła
Anton Paar, Grupa Żywiec S.A.

The aim of the research was to compare the data obtained by the Fermentation Monitor 5100® probe to reference laboratory results for selected parameters defining the beer wort fermentation process.


SzTF 2022


Quality & Stability of Beer


Iztok Joze Kosir
Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing, Slovenia
Boris Gadzov
FlavorActiv, United Kingdom

Expression of the taste and aroma of hops in beer also depends on the other raw materials used in the production of beer, and the strain of the yeast, as well as their typical profile of the aromatic compounds that are emitted during the fermentation.

Beer is roughly divided into bottom-fermenting beer (lager beer) and top fermenting beer (ale), which is depending on the type of yeast used for fermentation. Each hop variety has a characteristic composition of bitter substances and essential oils. In the brewing industry there are many different ways of hopping, which vary in the hopping time and quantity of the hops. Knowing the characteristics of individual hop varieties and their brewing values gives us the
possibility to create a wide range of beer flavors and aromas. High quality, freshness, flavour stability and batch-to-batch consistency are essential requirements for all breweries. Beer flavours are not static; it is in a constant state of change requiring sensory analysis at each stage.

The workshop describes the basic raw materials needed for beer production, the impact of yeast on the sensorial profile and expression of taste and aroma of some Slovenian hop varieties used in different ways and best sensory practices to monitor, analyse and align with internationally accepted flavour standard terminology.

The lecture includes theoretical and practical session, with a presentation of 4 different GMP Beer Reference Standards from hoppy origin.


SzTF 2022


Quality & Stability of Beer

L20: Comparison of chemical and sensorial evaluation of beer flavor

Iztok Joze Kosir
Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing, Slovenia

Aroma is one of the most important properties of any food product and certainly it is the same for beer. Although beer evaluation runs with sensory experts, we cannot neglect the influence of the human factor. With chemical analysis of the volatile part of beer aroma, we could solve this problem by building a data bank for construction a model to classify samples comparable to sensory assessment.

In this case there is a problem how to find out the right/optimal list of parameters that should be measured and how to statistically evaluate data to get the right answer. In this contribution we are representing our work on finding out the optimal way in evaluation of beer aroma with chemical analysis in comparison with the classic sensorial evaluation.(1) The sensory analysis could be replaced with chemical/statistical analysis on an appropriate data set and for a distinct beer brand.

Reference: (1) OCVIRK, Miha, KOČAR, Nataša, KOŠIR, Iztok Jože. Comparison of sensory and chemical evaluation of lager beer aroma by GC and GC/MS. Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 2018, 98(10), 3627-3635.


Quality & Stability of Beer


Krzysztof Linek


Quality & Stability of Beer

L22: Enzybrew: a daily effective eco-friendly alternative to caustic soda

Christophe Nilsson

Enzymes are the force of nature!

While enzymes properties are already well-known by brewers to transform starch in sugar, enzymes are also highly efficient for cleaning operations.

Being environmental friendly & sustainable as well as requiring less energy, enzymes constitute an eco-friendly alternative to caustic soda.

Enzymes are also scientifically proven to be the best remediation solution against biofilm – recurrent bacterial contamination.


Quality & Stability of Beer

L23: Introduction to Tank Cleaning Devices - SCANJET

Damian Isztwan

Introduction to Scanjet Tank Cleaning Devices – Differences in performance between static and rotary systems.

Most important features and advantages distinguish out Scanjet from the competition. Periods between service inspections and their costs.


SzTF 2022


Raw Materials


David Laureys
Ghent University, Belgium

Consumer demands are not static, but evolve continuously. Currently, novel and experimental beer styles are increasing in popularity, and to remain competitive in this market, brewers are actively looking to expand their product portfolio with novel and exciting products. One way to provide such unique experiences is the incorporation of alternative cereals or pseudocereals in the brewing process. However, this is not always a straightforward process. To facilitate this experimental process,  the incorporation of a selection of ancient wheat varieties (einkorn, emmer, spelt and khorasan), pseudocereals (quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat) and alternative cereals (sorghum, teff and tritordeum) was investigated in detail. Hereto, their thousand kernel weight, length and width was determined, as well as their macronutrient (starch, protein and fat), micronutrient (minerals and β-glucans) and enzyme (diastatic power, α-amylase and β-amylase) content. The onset gelatinization temperature of their starch was given extra attention, as this is of primordial importance to allow a succesfull brewing process. Then, lab-scale Congress mashing processes with 40% of these unmalted adjuncts were performed with and without a pregelatinization step (95°C for 20 min), after which the filtration time, extract content (Anton Paar), FAN content and the concentrations of glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose and maltohexaose (high-perfornamce anion exchange chromatography) were determined. High protein content in khorasan and high protein degradation in barley malt was reflected in high FAN content after Cogress mash. Pregelatinization improved filtration and/or increased extract content for spelt, amarant, sorghum and teff, which could be attributed to their high onset starch gelatinization temperatures. On the other hand, pregelatinization resulted in markedly lower concentrations of glucose for quinoa, amarant, buckwheat and teff, due to the inactivation of endogeneous glucoamylases. Furthermore, pregelatinization increased FAN for sorghum, teff and tritordeum, but decreased FAN for barley malt and khorasan. Overall, this information will assist the brewer in incorporating these cereals or pseudocereals in a brewing process.


New Products & New Trends

L25: Production of wort with the use of lentils malt – technological parameters in the brewhouse

Katarzyna Fulara
Kraków School of Brewing, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Poland


New Products & New Trends

L26: Brewers Compass® for sustainable brewing ambitions

Theo Wijsman


Quality & Stability of Beer

L27: Improving economic and environmental aspects while extending the shelf life of beer

Piotr Ziarko

Sustainably improving the shelf life of your beer.
For modern brewers it is a must to put a strong focus on producing sustainably. Producing a beer that has a long shelf life, in which it still has all the qualities that were carefully adjusted in the process of brewing, has always been substantially important also. The global corona crisis has intensified this need even more, as the consumption of beer in bars, events and restaurants went down globally and consumers shifted to buying beer to consume at home.
When it comes to sustainability, it’s three dimensions need to be balanced: sustainable production must be ecologically friendly, economically successful, and ethically unobjectionable. The reduction of waste and consumption has been in the centre of the efforts to become more sustainable for the past years, a more recent focus is on reducing the emission of microparticles.

Beer stability has several dimensions as well, the most important being flavor stability, colloidal and microbiological stability.
After briefly discussing the major influences to the above, Pall will introduce it’s major systems and will point out how these systems manage to improve both sustainability of production together with improving the shelf life of the beer while performing the tasks that they were designed for: Filtration and clarification, stabilization and eliminating the microbiological risk of the packaged product. 


Quality & Stability of Beer

L28: Beer flavour instability – staling aldehydes from wort to aged beer

Maciej Ditrych
KU Leuven, Belgium

During ageing, beer flavour deteriorates as a result of i.a. oxidation and exposure to high temperatures, which is especially relevant for product storage and distribution. Many of the chemical changes related to beer flavour instability have been fairly well identified, e.g. degradation of iso-α-acids, depletion of antioxidative potential and increase in the so-called staling aldehydes. Yet, often the above mentioned phenomena are investigated independently. Therefore, in order to obtain a more complete picture on beer ageing, we aimed at multivariate analysis of staling parameters.

In this study the repeatability of three independent brewing trails and the subsequently produced beers (fresh and forced aged for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 months at 30 °C) was evaluated in relation to beer quality. Staling compounds – free and cysteinylated marker aldehydes – were quantified via gas and liquid chromatography (GC, LC), respectively. Decrease of bitterness quality was evaluated by LC determination of cis- and trans- iso-α-acids. Antioxidative properties of beers were assessed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, total reactive antioxidative potential (TRAP) and LC quantification of sulphites and thiols. The study was expanded with haze and polyphenol analysis. In addition, sensory evaluation – the overall staleness rating – was carried out by 20 trained panelists on all fresh and forced aged beers. Results obtained from Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showed clear grouping of beer batches according to aging time. The subsequent regression analysis of all analytical parameters in relation to sensory evaluation allowed to select the most promising markers for the prediction of the product staleness, what was modeled by Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis.

In conclusion, the presentation gives a clear picture on the behavior of staling aldehydes during brewing, fermentation and beer ageing. In addition, it illustrates a case of multivariate data analysis as a potential tool for monitoring beer staleness, which might be especially useful for the control of product quality within the supply chain.


SzTF 2022

Closing of the xx School of Fermentation technology

Aleksander Poreda
Krakow School of Brewing, Poland


SzTF 2022


Open bar at the conference hall – beer provided by breweries supporting SzTF

19:00 🍽DINNER at Karczma na Kocierzu followed by a 🍻FAREWELL PARTY at K2 Club

SzTF 2022

Friday, 20.05.2022

07:00 BREAKFAST 🍳☕️

SzTF 2022


SzTF 2022

DEPARTURE TO the tenczynek brewery


ul. Tenczyńska 59, 32-067 Tenczynek

technical tour at the tenczynek brewery



Quality & Stability of Beer

Recipe optimization and process control in Żywiec Brewery with inline MIR analyser SIBA

Krzysztof Kucharczyk, Edyta Omyła, Aitor Lekuona-Amundarain SPECSHELL

Daily optimal brewhouse performance is demanding with limited process data available for optimization and only delayed reaction time for quality control. Moreover, with the increasing gelatinization trends that malt has shown recently, avoiding extract losses and maintaining fermentability within specifications imposes a new challenge to the brewer. As new inline technologies arise, the digitalization of the mashing process by SIBA providing live data on extract, polymerization degree and individual carbohydrate concentrations has helped Zywiec brewery in continuing top performance on a daily basis.

The first stage of the installation of SIBA in the brewery was the design of a technical system enabling the connection of the analyzer with mash tuns in Zywiec brewery. Due to the high level of automation in the brewhouse, it was assumed from the beginning that the SIBA implementation should also be fully automated; for this purpose, the SIBA sequence was coded into the Brewmaxx system.

After implementation, the impact of SIBA based mashing optimization on the wort and beer quality parameters was determined. The analyzed parameters were wort extract, filtration rate and extract losses. The final temperature of maize grits gelatinization in a maize cooker and temperature of enzymatic rests were optimized; together with the addition of commercial enzymes to the maize cooker. The SIBA based optimizations improved the liquefaction of starch, reduced the occupation time in the lauter tun by 5 minutes and reduced the turbidity of the wort by 4.6%. The introduced modifications in the mashing profile resulted in a reduction of extract losses by 0.22%, with the correspondent estimated savings of 330.000 PLN per year on a brewery scale. No statistically significant differences in the physicochemical and chromatographic results of the finished beer were observed; and the changes had no effect on the sensory profile of the finished product.